Richard III


Wednesday, January 22, 2020


Richard III







Kato. . . Why do you pick up Richard III?


Actually, I rented a DVD at Vancouver Public Library and watched the following documentary. . .



“Zoom In”

“Actual page”



Are you interested in the history of England during the medieval period?

I’m not particularly interested in the Middle Ages of England. . . However, I pick up Richard III today because I find a grammatically wrong sentence in the cover of the said DVD. . . Please have a look at the following sentence. . .




In 2001, a group of archaeologists made an incredible find:Buried beneath a parking lot they uncovered the bones of King III, hunchbacked, with an arrow through the spine.

Richard is considered by many as the most evil king to have ruled England.

He is also renowned as a fearsome warrior, despite the extreme curvature of his spine.

Now, scientists are testing the bones to learn and training a “body double” in medieval battlefield techniques to determine

whether Richard could have fought so ferociously with such a severe deformity.

The back of the DVD (Branch Call Number:942.046 R43s)

Don’t you think the above sentence in red is grammatically wrong?

What’s wrong with the above sentence?

Well, when I studied English grammar in high school, my teacher taught me that such a “past participle clause” is a typical mistake. . .




Buried beneath a parking lot,

the archaeologists uncovered the bones

of King III, hunchbacked,

with an arrow through the spine.


Is there a grammatical error in the above sentence?

So, Diane, you think the above sentence has nothing wrong, don’t you?

I don’t think it’s particularly wrong. . .

Well, the part in red above is called “past participle clause”. . . For example, the correct usage is as follows. . .




Used efficiently,

the PC’s battery will last longer.


If you write a full sentence, it will be as follows. . .




If it is used efficiently,

the PC’s battery will last longer.


Sure, it sounds alright to me. . .

If I write the above problematic sentence in full, it will be as follows. . .




While the archaeologists (NOT the bones) were

buried beneath a parking lot,

the archaeologists uncovered the bones

of King III, hunchbacked,

with an arrow through the spine.


In the above sentence, you see, the archeologists were buried in the parking lot. . . It sounds quite wrong, if not extremely funny. . . The correct sentence shoule be written like this:




Buried beneath a parking lot,

the bones were uncovered by the archaeologists.


I see. . . . “Past participles clauses” are rarely used in conversation, so even the native speakers tend to make a mistake. . . Now, I know that both subjects (“bones” in this case) must match, huh?

That’s right. . . In addition, Richard III had an abnormal spine, but it was not a so-called hunchback. . .



The Hunchback of Notre Dame



noun: hunchback; plural noun: hunchbacks

a back deformed by a sharp forward angle, forming a hump, typically caused by collapse of a vertebra.


a person with a hunchback.

Definition by GOOGLE


In fact, Richard III had severe scoliosis.


Richard III




Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death in 1485.
He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty.
His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.
He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare’s history plays.

When his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward’s eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V.
Arrangements were made for Edward’s coronation on 22 June 1483.
Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid.

Now officially illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne.
On 25 June, an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king.
He was crowned on 6 July 1483.

The young princes, Edward and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard’s orders.

There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign.
In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard’s former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.
Then in August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers.

Henry’s forces defeated Richard’s army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth.
Richard was slain, making him the last English king to die in battle.
Henry Tudor then ascended the throne as Henry VII.

Richard’s corpse was taken to the nearby town of Leicester and buried without pomp.
His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, and his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar.

In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site previously occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church.
The University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, and comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III’s eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015.


Discovery of remains

On 24 August 2012, the University of Leicester and Leicester City Council, in association with the Richard III Society, announced that they had joined forces to begin a search for the remains of King Richard.

The search for Richard III was led by Philippa Langley of the Society’s Looking For Richard Project with the archaeological work led by University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS).

Experts set out to locate the lost site of the former Greyfriars Church (demolished during Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries), and to discover whether his remains were still interred there.

By comparing fixed points between maps in a historical sequence, the search located the Church of the Grey Friars, where Richard’s body had been hastily buried without pomp in 1485, its foundations identifiable beneath a modern-day city centre car park.

On 5 September 2012, the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick’s garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.
A human skeleton was found beneath the Church’s choir.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park.
Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.
This had existed since the early 2000s to signify a reserved parking space.

On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.
Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder higher than the other (to what extent depended on the severity of the condition).

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.
These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger, and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it.
Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual’s brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.
Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as “a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull”.

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.
Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of 10.5 centimetres (4.1 in).

In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.
It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard’s naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.
This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard’s right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton.

British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in 2004 to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York, Richard’s elder sister.
A British-born woman who emigrated to Canada after the Second World War, Joy Ibsen (née Brown), was found to be a 16th-generation great-niece of the king in the same direct maternal line.
Joy Ibsen’s mitochondrial DNA was tested and belongs to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J, which by deduction, should also be the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup of Richard III.

Joy Ibsen died in 2008.
Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August 2012.
His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

On 4 February 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that the skeleton was beyond reasonable doubt that of King Richard III.
This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, soil analysis, and dental tests (there were some molars missing as a result of caries), as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard’s appearance.

Source:”Richard III of England”
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia






Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine has a sideways curve.

The curve is usually “S”- or “C”-shaped over three dimensions.

In some, the degree of curve is stable, while in others, it increases over time.

Mild scoliosis does not typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing.

Typically, no pain is present.

The cause of most cases is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Risk factors include other affected family members.

It can also occur due to another condition such as muscles spasms, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, and tumors such as neurofibromatosis.

Diagnosis is confirmed with X-rays.

Scoliosis is typically classified as either structural in which the curve is fixed, or functional in which the underlying spine is normal.

Treatment depends on the degree of curve, location, and cause.

Minor curves may simply be watched periodically.

Treatments may include bracing, specific exercises, and surgery.

The brace must be fitted to the person and used daily until growing stops.

Specific exercises may be used to try to decrease the risk of worsening.

They may be done alone or along with other treatments such as bracing.

Evidence that chiropractic manipulation, dietary supplements, or exercises can prevent the condition from worsening is weak.

However, exercise is still recommended due to its other health benefits.

Scoliosis occurs in about 3% of people.

It most commonly occurs between the ages of 10 and 20.

Females typically are more severely affected than males.

The term is from Ancient Greek: σκολίωσις, romanized: skoliosis which means “a bending”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The staff in charge of DVDs at Vancouver Public Library recognized the mistake, and rewrote as follows:. . .




In 2011, a group of amateur historians made an incredible archaeological find:the bones of King Richard III, hunchbacked, with an arrow through the spine.

Now, scientists are testing the bones to find out more about the king and also conducting fascinating experiments to determine whether Richard could have fought so ferociously in battle with such a severe deformity.


But hunchbacked remains as before. . .

Nobody is perfect. . . .



【Himiko’s Monologue】


You might wonder how King Richard III remains were discovered and confirmed.

Here is the answer for you, and take a close look at the following video clip.




Wnat do you think about the above movie?

You don’t like an excavation story, do you?

Well… here’s a mood-changing clip just for you.

Gess what?… You can now laught to the last tears.



  Mr. Mathane


In any road, I expect Kato will write another interesting article soon.

So please come back to see me.

Have a nice day!

Bye bye …



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Hi, I’m June Adams.

Kato is a real movie lover, who tries to watch 1001 movies.

As a matter of fact, he has already accomplished his goal.


『Actual List』


Kato watched “The Arabian Nights” or “One Thousand and One Nights” as his 1001th movie.

You might just as well want to view it.





The stories in “the Arabian Nights” were collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa.

The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian and Mesopotamian folklore and literature.

In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hazār Afsān which in turn relied partly on Indian elements.

What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves.

The stories proceed from this original tale.

Some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord.

Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more.









『軽井沢タリアセン夫人 – 小百合物語』